What is Oxycodone



Oxycodone is a medicine used for pain relief and is considered a narcotic drug. It is an opioid, which is synthesized from ‘Thebaine’ and is used in the treatment of severe to moderate pain. The Oxycodone was developed in Germany in the year 1916 as a narcotic analgesic as an attempt to improve the medicinal properties of the then existing opioids. It is available in two forms as controlled-release and immediate-release and is prepared from a single ingredient. As the drug can become addictive, it comes in Parental formulations containing 10 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively. It is also available in the form paracetamol and NSAIDS (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) containing the non-narcotic ingredients in formulations of immediate release.

USES



- Since its development, Oxycodone has been in continuous clinical use for relieving chronic pain. It is also associated as a pain killer with many other types of severe pains.
- It is sometimes used to cure acute cancer and non-malignant chronic pain.
- Controlled-release Oxycodone is generally preferred over immediate-release Oxycodone as it gives better treatment against the types of pains with less side effects.
- Oxycodone has a chemical structure similar to Codeine and produces pain-relieving effects same as that of Morphine. 
- It works on the central nervous system of the body by altering the pain senses and reducing the body’s emotional response towards the pain.
- Therefore, it changes the pain messages being sent to the brain and relieves severe pain relating to arthritis and cancer.
- Oxycodone is also administered to reduce the withdrawal symptoms of drugs such as Morphine or Heroin.
- Due it its addictive nature, Oxycodone is used by some people to achieve a euphoric high.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

- Oxycodone contains a hydroxyl group at carbon no. 14 along with a 7,8-dihydro feature.
- It also contains a carbonyl group as seen in ketones.

SIDE EFFECTS
- Taking Oxycodone regularly can cause certain mild side effects such as headaches and dizziness.
- If the dosage of Oxycodone is taken in high content, it can cause severe conditions of breathing irregularities and respiratory depression.
- It can also lead to Seizures, Low blood pressure and Nausea. Sometimes anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks, fevers, muscle weakness and flu-like symptoms are also observed in patients.
- Other side effects of Oxycodone include Heart attack and slowed breathing.
- It can lead to death due to cardiac arrest if the dosage of Oxycodone is highly abused.

METHOD OF USE

- The Oxycodone tablets and pills are generally administered orally. In certain special cases, the products of Oxycodone can also be administered intravenously, intra-muscularly, subcutaneously or rectally.
- The Oxycodone products remain active for about 12 hours when taken orally.
- Normal dosage of this drug includes 2 to 4 tablets daily.
- Since the Oxycodone can be easily abused by the patients, it is given under severe observation by a registered physician.
- Oxycodone and its ingredients are easily excreted through sweat and urine after their use. Hence, patients with renal impairment are not given dosages of this drug as it gets accumulated.

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

- Oxycodone should not be used in case of Asthma or breathing problems.
- It should be avoided in case of any kind of allergy towards narcotic pain relief medicines.
- The dosage of Oxycodone should be immediately stopped or reduced if the patients show any type withdrawal symptoms.
- Old age people should avoid this drug as it can cause breathing problems.
- Pregnant women and breastfeeding ladies should avoid using Oxycodone as it can cause harm to the child.